1: Ancient Egypt - Known for pyramids, hieroglyphics, and pharaohs, influencing art, architecture, and religion.

2: Mesopotamia - Cradle of civilization, inventing writing, wheel, and agriculture, shaping laws and cities.

3: China - Emperor dynasties, Great Wall, silk, paper, compass, and tea, impacting trade and science.

4: Greece - Birthplace of democracy, philosophy, theater, and Olympic Games, shaping Western culture.

5: Rome - Empire of law, engineering, roads, and Latin language, influencing governance and languages.

6: India - Indus Valley, Hinduism, Buddhism, Ayurveda, and mathematics, impacting spirituality and medicine.

7: Maya - Pyramids, calendar, astronomy, and hieroglyphics, contributing to Mesoamerican culture.

8: Inca - Machu Picchu, quipu, terrace farming, and roads, shaping Andean society and architecture.

9: Aztec - Tenochtitlan, chinampas, sacrifice, and chocolate, impacting art, agriculture, and rituals.

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